London Stock Exchange Group
|London Stock Exchange|
|Headquarters||10 Paternoster Square, London, EC4M 7LS, United Kingdom|
|Key People||David Schwimmer, Chief Executive Officer|
|Products||Cash equities, futures and options, debt, covered warrants, ETFs, reits, fixed interest, CFDs and depositary receipts|
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London Stock Exchange Group (LSE Group) is an international exchange group that operates a range of international equity, bond and derivatives markets, including the London Stock Exchange plc; Borsa Italiana; MTS, the European fixed income market; and London Derivatives Market (formerly Turquoise). The London Stock Exchange is the United Kingdom's primary stock exchange. The LSE, which is itself publicly traded, provides markets that facilitate the raising of capital and the trading of corporate securities, access to a trading environment, as well as real-time pricing and reference information services worldwide. The 2007 acquisition of Borsa Italiana added futures and options to its product mix.
LSE Group also owns 80 percent of LCH.Clearnet, the global central counterparty clearing operator, as well as wholly-owned subsidiaries CC&G, the Italian clearing house; Monte Titoli, the European settlement business; and globeSettle, a Luxembourg-based central securities depository launched in 2014.
The group also operates index, data and analytics platforms including FTSE Russell Indexes, SEDOL, UnaVista, Proquote and RNS. LSE also operates MillenniumIT, a technology platform LSE bought in 2009, and which forms the basis of LSE’s trading system.
LSE Group is headquartered in London, with operations in North America, Italy, France and Sri Lanka. As of 2015, the group employed more than 4,700 people.
In 2017, the exchange's Borsa Italiana and LSE Derivatives markets combined were ranked 28th among global derivatives markets, according to the Futures Industry Association's annual volume survey. They posted a combined volume of 46 million contracts, up 8 percent a year earlier.
The Early Years
The LSE traces its roots to the stock trading started in coffee houses in London in the late 17th century, which evolved into the opening of the first regulated exchange on March 3, 1801. The exchange amalgamated with 12 regional bourses in 1973 – the year in which female members were admitted for the first time – before the the modern form of the LSE was established with market deregulation in 1986. The so-called “Big Bang” ended the separation of brokers and dealers, opened membership to outside companies and shifted trading from the floor to dealing rooms. The LSE was established as a private limited company.
The Alternative Investment Market was launched in 1985, providing a listing venue for smaller companies, and the Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service (Sets) and Crest settlement operations started in 1987.
The Transition - Public Listing and Industry Consolidation
Shareholders voted in favor of a stock market listing in 2000, and the LSE listed on its own main board in July 2001.
The LSE has been at the forefront of consolidation in the global exchange sector, successfully fending off a series of hostile takeover bids. The battle started on Dec. 14, 2004, with an unsolicited 530p-a-share offer from Deutsche Boerse which, like subsequent proposals, was rejected by management as undervaluing the company. The LSE introduced a raft of shareholder-friendly measures as part of its defenses, including borrowing to finance a series of share buybacks, cost-control measures and the delivery on time and to budget a new, high-speed share trading platform.
The LSE then considered tentative offers from Euronext and saw off a hostile bid from a consortium led by Australia's Macquarie Bank – launched on Dec. 15, 2005 and valued at 580p-a-share in cash – before embarking on a year-long defense against offers from the Nasdaq. The U.S. exchange made an indicative 950p-a-share offer on March 3, 2006, which was swiftly rejected by the LSE and withdrawn on March 30, 2006. Nasdaq started acquiring LSE stock on Apr. 12, 2006, building a 14.99-percent stake at 1,175p a share, adding a further 3.8 percent on May 3 at 1,218p and 5.4 percent at 1,248p in November. Nasdaq tabled a £2.9 billion indicative offer on Nov. 20, 2006 valued at 1,243p per share, with the U.S. exchange boosting its stake from 24.1 percent to 28.75 percent. The LSE continued to reject the offer and rejected discussions with Nasdaq executives. The offer expired on Feb. 10, 2007.
Freed from the Nasdaq pursuit – though the U.S. exchange remained its largest shareholder – the LSE acquired Borsa Italiana in June of 2007, in a deal valued at €1.6 billion. LSE shareholders received 72 percent of the combined group.
The winter of 2007 saw the LSE caught up in the three-way takeover battle for OMX between the Nasdaq, Borse Dubai and the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA). Borse Dubai and the U.S. exchange subsequently teamed up with a joint offer, while the QIA bowed out in December 2007. Borse Dubai acquired OMX in early 2008 and then transfered it to Nasdaq in return for a 19.9-percent stake in a new combined company as well as Nasdaq's 28-percent stake in LSE. The QIA has a 14.9 percent stake in the LSE.
EDX London, which trades derivatives on Russian and Nordic markets, became a wholly owned subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange in December 2008. In 2007, the total number of derivatives contracts traded across EDX and IDEM increased 32 percent on 2006 to a total of 79.9 million, while the notional value traded grew 45 percent to £1.5 trillion (€2.2 trillion).
The Rolet Era - Restructuring and Growth
In March 2009, Xavier Rolet was named to LSE's board, and two months later was named its new CEO, replacing Clara Furse. One month later, in June 2009, the LSE said it would cut jobs - the first sign of restructuring the 208-year-old bourse since Xavier Rolet took over as chief executive. At that time, the group employed a total of 1,135 staff, split between 570 in the UK and 565 in Italy.
LSE acquired a 51 percent stake in Turquoise, a former rival, in February of 2010, and in July of 2013, LSE increased its stake by purchasing Turquoise's derivatives platform.  On July 13, 2010, LSE named Pinar Emirdag, a former Turquoise board member and a key figure in its development, as head of professional business development. The addition came as the bourse sought to lure back customers from new rivals, such as MTFs Bats Europe and Chi-X Europe Ltd. Emirdag left the company in 2013.
In 2010, Rolet announced he was stepping down from the board of LCH.Clearnet, ultimately paving the way for LSE to take a majority stake in the clearinghouse. The LSE did not have any shares in LCH.Clearnet at that time, which made it an exception among its global peers in not having a fully integrated clearing house for equities and derivatives. LSE Group closed a €328 million cash deal with LCH.Clearnet in early 2013, leaving the exchange group with a 55 percent stake in the clearing house.
The LSE implemented a new trading system called Millennium Exchange in 2011. Since then, the system has suffered three outages, which occurred in 2011, 2018, and 2019.
Rolet stepped down from his role as CEO of LSE on November 29, 2017, after a public battle between the exchange's board and an activist investor over his planned departure in 2018. Chief Financial Officer David Warren replaced Rolet on an interim basis and named David Schwimmer as CEO in April 2018. 
FTSE, Russell, and FTSE-Russell
LSE Group's involvement in the index business dates back to 1984, when the exchange began calculating the FTSE 100 Index for the Financial Times' parent company Pearson. The index team was spun off into a joint venture in 1995. In December 2011, LSE Group agreed to a £450 ($705 million) acquisition of Pearson's 50 percent ownership to become the sole owner of the index group.
In June 2014 the LSE agreed to buy The Frank Russell Company for £1.59 billion ($2.7 billion). The purchase was the largest one in the LSE's history and and gave it the opportunity to attract trading in securities and derivatives that track the Russell indices. It also brought together about $9 trillion of assets benchmarked globally and made LSE the No. 2 player in U.S.-listed exchange traded funds. The deal closed at the end of 2014.
In February 2015, LSE Group entered into a licensing agreement with CBOE to develop and list options based on existing FTSE and Russell Indices. Cash-settled options on the flagship Russell 2000 began trading on CBOE as of April 1, 2015, and in October 2015, the options exchange began offering options on other Russell index products including the Russell 1000 Index (RUI), the Russell 1000 Value Index (RLV) and the Russell 1000 Growth Index (RLG)
When the exchange group acquired Frank Russell, it also inherited Russell Investments, the firm's asset management division which held, at the time of acquisition, about $262 billion under management. Soon after the acquisition was completed, LSE Group put the asset management division up for sale. In October 2015, LSE agreed to a $1.15 billion cash sale to an investment group led by U.S. private equity group TA Associates.
New Markets, Failed Merger With Deutsche Boerse
In October 2015, the exchange group announced the launch of a new derivatives exchange, CurveGlobal, which offers trading in interest rate products, including futures on short term interest rate (STIR) in Euribor and Short Sterling and long term interest rate (LTIR) futures in Bund, Bobl, Schatz and Gilts.
In November 2015, the group launched ELITE Connect, a platform that allows market participants such as public companies, investor relations professionals, institutional investors and brokers to make contact, hold meetings and share information online.
On December 22, 2015, LSEG announced it had acquired XTF Inc., a U.S. based provider of ETF data, analytics and ratings. LSEG will integrate the business into LSEG’s Information Services Division, which includes FTSE Russell, SEDOL, UnaVista and RNS.
On February 23, 2016, LSEG and Deutsche Boerse Group announced they were in advanced talks to create a "merger of equals." This marked the third attempt by the two exchanges to merge, after failed attempts in 2001 and again in 2004. In July of 2016, LSEG shareholders voted in favor of the merger, in spite of the potential problems resulting from the decision of Britain to exit the EU. An overwhelming 99.89pc of voting shareholders supported the deal. 
On December 27, 2016, the Financial Times reported that The LSE Group would sell its French clearing arm, LCH, to Euronext in a cash deal worth about €510m, hoping to smooth the way for the Deutsche Boerse merger. LSE offered to sell LCH SA, formerly known as Clearnet, in September 2016 to ease antitrust concerns. The LSE wants to keep the UK arm of LCH, which clears interest rate swaps, and link it with Deutsche Boerse’s Eurex, which clears futures.
But the merger ultimately fell apart after it was blocked by the European commission on the day that Britain served notice on its EU membership, because the regulator said the deal would create a "de facto monopoly in the crucial area of fixed instruments." Margrethe Vestager, the EU competition regulator, had asked LSE to sell its Italian trading arm, MTS, to ease competition concerns for the merger, but the LSE and Deutsche Boerse refused to meet her requests. 
In 2017 the LSE launched an additional market called the International Securities Market (ISM), for the issuance of primary debt targeted at institutional and professional investors. It is a multilateral trading facility that operates alongside LSE’s other markets.
LSE Links To Asia
In June 2019 the London Stock Exchange and Shanghai Stock Exchange's Shanghai-London Stock Connect, went live allowing investors to access and trade one another's stock listings on their respective markets. In other words, foreign companies are able to list on the Shanghai Stock Exchange while Chinese listed companies are able to raise capital through fungible instruments on the London Stock Exchange.
The historic link marked the first time Chinese investors could trade international stocks within China without domestic capital controls and international investors could access China A-Shares from outside the country on the London Stock Exchange, using international trading and settlement systems.
The linking mechanism's first listing was on June 17, 2019 with Hautai Securities, a securities company in China, as the first issuer to list global depository receipts (GDRs) on the London Stock Exchange. The firm raised $1.54 billion, marking the first time international investors were given access to China A-shares on an exchange outside China.
United Kingdom and Chinese officials touted the link as "ground breaking" and said it would deepen global connectivity.
Huatai Securities was also among the first brokers to execute a trade on the LSE's Global Equity Segment on October 14, 2019. The Global Equity Segment allows investors to trade international stocks, including US listings on LSE, during London's trading hours. BNP Paribas Securities Services provides custody services.
LSE Moves to Acquire Refinitiv And Gets A Bid From HKEX
On August 1, 2019, it was confirmed that the London Stock Exchange Group had moved to acquire Refinitiv, a major competitor in desktop terminals, for about $27 billion. The all-share deal could transform the LSE, more than tripling its revenues to £7bn. 
The LSE said it would pay for Refinitiv by issuing $14.5 billion in new shares and would take on $12.5bn of existing debt. It will also gain Refinitiv’s majority stake in the listed bond trading platform Tradeweb and ownership of the currency trading platform FXall. However, LSE must go through a lengthy antitrust process in which regulators will investigate whether its cumulative data offerings give it pricing power over customers.
The deal was put into question in September 2019, when Hong Kong Exchanges & Clearing made an offer for the London Stock Exchange Group for $36.6 billion. The proposed deal offered 2,045 pence plus 2.495 HKEX shares per LSE share, valuing each LSE share at 8,361 pence. It also would have ended the LSE's bid for Refinitiv. The LSE board unanimously rejected the offer, citing "fundamental flaws." HKEX dropped its bid in October 2019, after failing to secure support from LSE shareholders. Several factors in the failed overture included the LSE's view that Shanghai, not Hong Kong, will the be the long-term financial capital of China; concerns over a Chinese exchange having ownership of the UK's flagship stock exchange group; and worries over social unrest in Hong Kong that has damaged the territory's reputation.
In January 2020, the Financial Times reported that LSE was set to file its $27 billion deal to buy Refinitiv with EU antitrust authorities within weeks after lengthy discussions with Brussels. At the time, the two sides were still working on defining what constituted "the market" against which the deal can be assessed. 
The European Commission approved the London Stock Exchange Group's planned all-share acquisition of Refinitiv in January 2021, clearing the way for the merger pending other regulatory authority approvals. The LSEG had been asked to make certain concessions to get the EU's approval, including agreeing to sell Borsa Italiana Group, because of concerns the Refinitiv merger would hinder competition in the region. The deal was expected to close in first-quarter 2021.  
Donald Brydon, Chairman
David Schwimmer, Group CEO
David Warren, Chief Financial Officer
Raffaele Jerusalmi, Executive Director, Chief Executive Officer of Borsa Italiana and Director of Capital Markets
Chris Corrado, Group COO, Group CIO
Diane Côté, Chief Risk Officer
Catherine Johnson, Global General Counsel
Daniel Maguire, Chief Executive Officer, LCH Group
Nikhil Rathi, CEO, London Stock Exchange plc & Director of International Development
Waqas Samad, Group Director of Information Services
- Serge Harry, Chief of Staff to the Group CEO, Group Coordinator of Corporate Strategy & Country Head for France, Benelux and Germany
|Year||Total Annual Derivatives Volume||Percent Change|
Derivatives Exchange Volumes
|Name||Year||Total Annual Volume||Percent Change|
|Name||Year||Total Annual Volume||Percent Change|
|LSE Derivatives Market||2018||9,868,702||19%|
10 Paternoster Square, London, EC4M 7LS, United Kingdom
BEIJING - CHINA
Unit 1231, Level 12 - China Resources Building, 8 Jianguomenbei Avenue, Beijing, Dongcheng District 100005, China
1 International Place, 14th Floor, Boston, MA 02110, United States
COLOMBO, SRI LANKA
Trace - Expert City, Maradana, Colombo 10, 01000 Sri Lanka
+94 11 2416543
DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Emirates Financial towers, 2404 South Tower, Dubai International Financial Centre, United Arab Emirates
+971 4 375 1868
HONG KONG, CHINA
Two Exchange Square, 8 Connaught Place Central, Hong Kong, China
Viale dei Pentri, 161, 86170 IS, Italy
+39 0865 8201
MALABE, SRI LANKA
1 Millennium Drive, Colombo, Malabe 10115, Sri Lanka
+94 11 2416000
MILAN, ITALY (GATELAB)
Via M. Gonzaga, 5, 20123 MI, Italy
+39 02 871261
MILAN, ITALY (MAIN OFFICE)
Palazzo Mezzanotte, Piazza Affari, 6, 20123 MI, Italy
+39 (0)2 724261
Via Giuseppe Mazzini, 9/11, 20123 MI, Italy
+39 (0)2 724261
Level 8 Vibgyor Tower, G Block C62 Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai 400 051, India
NEW YORK, USA
1270 Avenue of The Americas, 28th Floor, New York, NY 10020, United States
+1 212 314 1100
18 Rue du Quatre Septembre, 75002 Paris, France
+33 (0) 1 70 37 65 00
Via Tomacelli, 146, 00186 Rome, Italy
SAN FRANCISCO, USA
One Market, Spear Tower, Floor 36, Office No.3646, San Francisco, CA 94105, United States
+1 415 659 1855
SEATTLE, USA (FTSE RUSSELL)
1201 3rd Avenue, Suite 2500, Seattle, WA 98101, United States
+1 206 829 5723
Room 3127, 31/F, Jin Mao Tower, 88 Century Avenue, Pudong, Shanghai, 31 200120, China
+86 (0)21 2890 9720
SINGAPORE (FTSE RUSSELL)
Level 18, Centennial Tower, 3 Temasek Boulevard, 039190, Singapore
+65 6818 6280
Level 36, Governor Phillip Tower, 1 Farrer Place, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
+61 2 8823 3521
100-0004, Tokyo, Chiyoda-ku, Otemachi First Square (East Tower), 11th Floor, 1-5-1 Otemachi, Japan
T: +81 (3) 3581 2811
70 York Street, Suite 1520, Toronto, ON, Canada
+416 572 7979
WASHINGTON, D.C., USA
1455 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Suite 360, Washington, DC 20004, United States
- London Stock Exchange Group PLC. Bloomberg.
- LSE CCPs opt for globeSettle as collateral venue. FTSE Global Markets.
- 2018 Annual Volume Survey. Futures Industry.org.
- History. LSE.
- LSE prepares for freedom from Nasdaq bid. Financial Times.
- LSE in talks with Borsa Italiana. Financial Times.
- Qatar bows out of OMX battle. Financial Times.
- LSE Names Xavier Rolet as New CEO, Replacing Furse. Bloomberg.
- New Chief Rolet Wields Axe At LSE. Financial Times.
- LSE Unveils Turquoise Acquisition. MSN Money UK.
- LSE Hires Emirdag as Head of Professional Business Development. Bloomberg.
- LSE's Pinar Emirdag Departs Exchange After Three Years. Bloomberg.
- LSE offer for TMX receives boost. The Financial Times.
- TMX, LSE Terminate Merger Deal. WSJ.com.
- LSE’s Rolet quits board of LCH.Clearnet. Financial Times.
- LSE extends control of LCH.Clearnet. Financial Times.
- U.K. Examines if Cyberattack Triggered London Stock Exchange Outage. The Wall Street Journal.
- Bigson-Smith to step down as LSE chairman. The Financial Times.
- LSE seeks to end the battle for the board. The Financial Times.
- CEO quits as LSE tries to draw line under management row. Reuters.
- Goldman Sachs banker appointed London Stock Exchange CEO. Guardian.
- LSE to Buy Rest of FTSE. The Wall Street Journal.
- Pearson sells £450m stake in FTSE to London Stock Exchange. The Telegraph.
- LSE: A bigger cheese. The Financial Times.
- London Stock Exchange to Buy U.S. Asset Manager Frank Russell for $2.7 Billion. The Wall Street Journal.
- LSE to conclude Russell deal within weeks. The Financial Times.
- CBOE Holdings to Launch New Options on Three FTSE Russell Indexes October 20. CBOE.
- LSE to Sell Russell Investments for $1.15 Billion. The Wall Street Journal.
- London Stock Exchange Group launches new derivatives venture – CurveGlobal. LSE Group.
- London Stock Exchange launches 'LinkedIn for corporate access'. Financial News.
- LSEG Acquires XTF. London Stock Exchange Group.
- Deutsche Boerse lines up swoop for LSE. Financial Times.
- London Stock Exchange wins shareholder support for Deutsche Boerse deal. The Telegraph.
- LSE to sell French clearing arm to Euronext. The Financial Times.
- London Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse merger blocked by EU. The Guardian.
- London Stock Exchange Group Announces New International Securities Market. LSE.
- London Stock Exchange buys a further chunk of LCH. LSE.
- LSE digs deeper into market infrastructure with Euroclear buy. Reuters.
- Shanghai-London Stock Connect. Press Release.
- Long-awaited London-Shanghai share listing project goes live. Reuters.
- First Chinese-listed company launches on London Stock Exchange. Yahool Finance.
- LSEG completes first trade on new Global Equity Segment with Huatai Securities. The Trade.
- LSE Soars on Bet $27 Billion Refinitiv Bid Will Boost Bourse. Bloomberg.
- LSE-Refinitiv deal faces long antitrust review: sources. Reuters.
- London Stock Exchange clinches acquisition of Refinitiv for $27bn. The Financial Times.
- Hong Kong Exchange Makes Unsolicited $36.6 Billion Bid for LSE. Bloomberg.
- London Stock Exchange rejects Hong Kong takeover offer. CNBC.
- HKEX drops pursuit of London Stock Exchange. The Trade.
- Hong Kong Stock Exchange Drops Nearly $37 Billion Bid for London Rival. The Wall Street Journal.
- LSE set to send $27bn Refinitiv tie-up to EU regulators. The Financial Times.
- LSE’s $15 Billion Refinitiv Deal Is Cleared by Key European Regulator. WSJ.com.
- European Commission approves LSEG’s $27 billion Refinitiv deal. The TRADE.
- LSEG All Share Acquisition of Refinitiv – European Commission Approval. London Stock Exchange Group.com.