Nasdaq, Inc.

From MarketsWiki
Revision as of 17:09, 18 February 2024 by LauraOatney3 (talk | contribs) (→‎Key People)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Nasdaq, Inc.
Founded Feb. 8, 1971
Headquarters One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway New York, NY 10006 USA

Image: 200 pixels

Key People Adena Friedman, CEO
Employees 4,325 employees
Products Exchange offering products covering multiple asset classes
Twitter @Nasdaq
LinkedIn Profile
Facebook Page

Nasdaq (Nasdaq: NDAQ) is a global provider of trading, clearing, exchange technology, listing, information and public company services. Nasdaq is the creator of the world's first electronic stock market, and its technology powers more than 90 marketplaces in 50 countries, and 1-in-10 of the world's securities transactions. It is home to more than 3,900 listed companies with a market value of approximately $12 trillion and approximately 18,000 corporate clients.[1]

Nasdaq offers more than 90 market data products across 50 different countries for 2.5 million direct customers.[2] It also provides surveillance and risk management technology to more than 75 brokers in over 80 countries, as well as to buy side and sell side firms.

Nasdaq's listings on its U.S., Nordic and Baltic exchanges represent more than $12 trillion in overall market value. Smaller companies can list on its First North market in Europe. In the Nordic region, Nasdaq owns and operates exchanges in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, as well as the exchange for commodities derivatives in Norway and a clearinghouse in Stockholm with a branch in Norway.[3] It also operates Nasdaq Private Market to help firms identify partners and support before they go public. [4]

The company operates 25 markets, including one clearinghouse and five central depositories, as well as six U.S. equity options markets and two futures only markets, plus one OTC bond trading platform.[5]

The company was ranked as the 5th largest derivatives exchange in the world by contract volume in 2021, according to the annual Futures Industry Association's (FIA) survey, with 3.29 billion contracts traded, up 23.76 percent from the previous year.[6]


Early Days for Nasdaq[edit]

Nasdaq was founded by the National Association of Securities Dealers, or NASD, which was charged with preventing market abuses after the Great Depression and wanted to create a way for investors to buy and sell stocks on a computerized, transparent, and fast system. Nasdaq was founded in 1971 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of FINRA, and the Nasdaq Stock Market debuted on February 8 of that year as the world’s first electronic stock market, listing more than 2,500 securities.[7]

The company underwent a restructuring in 1982, debuting its National Market System (NMS), later changed to Nasdaq National Market. The NNM added refinements such as making the price and volume information of each trade available 90 seconds after execution, as opposed to after the close of trading.

Nasdaq separated from the National Association of Securities Dealers in 1987. In 2000, Nasdaq membership voted to restructure and spin off Nasdaq into a shareholder-owned, for-profit company.[8]

In 2004, Nasdaq launched a new electronic closing process, the Nasdaq Closing Cross, which provided the industry with greater certainty in pricing major transactions and daily mutual fund Net Asset Values. The Closing Cross is used by markets around the world today to set the Nasdaq Official Closing Price (NOCP) for U.S.-listed securities.[9]

FINRA divested its ownership of Nasdaq in 2006, and The Nasdaq Stock Market became fully operational as an independent registered national securities exchange in 2007.[10]

Dot Com Boom, Bust and Technology[edit]

Nasdaq is credited with the invention of both electronic trading and the modern IPO. In the 1990s it revolutionized the equities trading world, introducing near-real time quotes for OTC stocks. It also helped usher in the era of public trading of technology companies like Apple, Microsoft, Oracle, Dell and Intel. During the technology company boom, or so-called "dot-com bubble," in the 1990s, Nasdaq benefited from the excitement over Internet and technology stocks. About 89 percent of all U.S. initial public offerings during 1999, for example, took place on Nasdaq, according to Nasdaq: A History of the Market That Changed the World by Mark Ingebretsen. But when the dot-com bubble collapsed in 2000, so did the Nasdaq Composite Index, losing 78 percent of its value that April. [11]

In 1991, Nasdaq became the first exchange to sell its technology to other exchanges, as well as the first to have an integrated derivatives trading and clearing system. In 1995, it became the first to sell market technology in Asia.[12] Nasdaq’s market technology is used by, among others, Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited, Singapore Exchange, Tokyo Commodity Exchange, Japan Exchange Group, Bursa Malaysia and SBI Japannext.[13]

Nasdaq's IPO, Bob Greifeld and Early Acquisitions[edit]

Restricted shares of Nasdaq were initially sold by the NASD in 2000 through a private placement offering.

Also in 2000, Nasdaq created Nasdaq-Liffe Markets (NQLX) as a joint venture between Nasdaq and LIFFE to offer trading in security futures, including single-stock futures, on the LIFFE CONNECT platform. NQLX shut down in October 2004 because of lack of liquidity and consolidated its remaining contracts into positions at OneChicago.[14]

In June 2001, the company opened Nasdaq Europe, seeing it as a first step in implementing its global strategy in Europe. In November 2001, it announced a partnership between Nasdaq Europe and the Berlin Stock Exchange.

Trading restrictions expired in 2002 and shares began trading on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol NDAQ.

Robert Greifeld became the CEO of Nasdaq in 2003, when the company operated one equity market in the U.S., and led the company through a series of important acquisitions that expanded the company globally and into all asset classes. Rivalry between Greifeld's Nasdaq and John Thain's New York Stock Exchange heated up when the NYSE made a surprise purchase of the electronic exchange Archipelago in April of 2005, vastly upgrading its electronic offering when ECNs were on the rise. Two days later, Nasdaq acquired Instinet Group for $1.88 billion, giving it a greater share of the equity market.[15]

On Feb. 9, 2005, Nasdaq listed its shares on The Nasdaq Stock Market following an offering of secondary shares priced at $9 per share.

Greifeld set the exchange on a course for more acquisitions after its IPO, including two failed attempts to acquire the London Stock Exchange, the first in March of 2006.[16] A second hostile bid was rejected by the LSE's shareholders in November of 2006, and LSE executives spurned further discussions with Nasdaq executives.[17]

Nasdaq Acquires OMX: Goes Global Multi-Asset[edit]

The company's biggest acquisition was the purchase of OMX AB, which operated the Nordic exchanges, on February 27, 2008, resulting in an expansion of the business from a U.S.-based exchange operator to a global company offering its exchange technology to marketplaces all over the world. Founded in June 1985 by Olof Stenhammar, OM offered options to purchase in six shares and grew rapidly from there into a regional powerhouse with top notch technology. The acquisition made Nasdaq OMX Group the world's largest exchange company, hosting the trading of 4,000 stocks world-wide, and allowed it to sell trading platforms supporting multiple asset classes, as well as listings, financial services technology, data and financial products.[18] Although OMX was little known to many U.S. investors at the time, some of the world's biggest brand names listed there, including Nokia and Volvo.[19]

Nasdaq removed OMX from its branding almost seven years after the acquisition of the Nordic exchange group.

As part of the transaction, NASDAQ OMX Group also became a 33.33 percent shareholder in DIFX, Dubai's international financial exchange. Borse Dubai was a 19.9 percent shareholder of NASDAQ OMX Group.[20]

Before the merger with OMX, the Nasdaq Stock Market (Nasdaq) listed itself as the world's second-largest cash equities platform by trading volume and the biggest electronic screen-based equity securities market in the U.S. in terms of listings and traded share volume.[21]

Nasdaq launched a second equity exchange in Jan. 2009 after it acquired the Boston Stock Exchange in August of 2008 for $61 million and renamed it NASDAQ OMX BX. [22]

The company continued to expand into other assets classes, moving into U.S. equity options in March of 2008 after receiving approval from the Securities and Exchange Commission to launch the NASDAQ Options Market, an equity and index options market.

It also expanded into the business of trading and clearing commodities products, acquiring the clearing, international derivatives and consulting subsidiaries of Nord Pool ASA, the world's largest power derivatives exchange and one of Europe's largest carbon exchanges, in 2008. It later became part of NASDAQ OMX Commodities. In July 2012, it acquired NOS Clearing ASA, a Norway-based clearinghouse primarily for over-the-counter derivatives for the freight and fuel oil market, iron ore and seafood derivatives market.[23]

Nasdaq also acquired the Copenhagen Exchange, created in 1808, when it acquired OMX.[24]

Nasdaq Goes to Philly and Into Interest Rates[edit]

Nasdaq signed an agreement to acquire the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the U.S., on November 7, 2007.[25]

Nasdaq then launched a futures exchange in January of 2009, after it acquired the Philadelphia Board of Trade (PBOT) in 2008 as part of its acquisition of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. The renamed Nasdaq Futures Exchange (NFX) lists futures products, including interest rate swap futures, currency futures and sector index futures.[26]

NFX currently offers trading in electricity, Henry Hub natural gas, Brent Crude oil, WTI Crude oil, heating oil and gasoil. [27]

Nasdaq's expansion into interest rate derivatives began with the launch of NASDAQ OMX NLX in London on May 31, 2013. (It was later rebranded Nasdaq NLX). The market started trading initially with six products including German Bund, Bobl and Schatz contracts and Euribor, sterling and long gilt futures in direct competition with the two biggest exchanges in the region. But the market struggled to gain volume and was shuttered in 2017. [28][29]

Nasdaq also gained further exposure to the fixed income markets on July 1, 2013, when it acquired the electronic Treasuries trading platform eSpeed from BGC Partners Inc. The platform — which trades two-, three-, five-, seven-, ten- and 30-year instruments — became part of Nasdaq OMX's Transaction Services business. [30] [31] [32] [33]

The exchange branched out further in 2013 with its acquisition of Thomson Reuters’ investor relations, public relations and Multimedia Solutions businesses. That same year the company also acquired eSpeed, a provider of electronic trading of U.S. Treasury Securities.

Greifeld & Sprecher Bid for the Big Board[edit]

NASDAQ OMX Group and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) attempted to acquire NYSE Euronext in 2011 for $11.3 billion, but withdrew the bid after the U.S. Department of Justice threatened an antitrust lawsuit. [34] [35]

In 2013, Nasdaq acquired Thomson Reuters’ investor relations, public relations and multimedia solutions businesses.[36]

Facebook IPO Fallout[edit]

Facebook listed its IPO on Nasdaq on Friday, May 18, 2012, but trading in the stock was delayed and technical glitches led to confusion, incomplete orders and mispricing. [37] When trading began at 11 a.m. the Nasdaq system was overwhelmed by 496,000 orders that sent Nasdaq’s computers into a continuous loop that made it impossible to establish a correct opening price for Facebook stock.

In May of 2013, the SEC levied a $10 million fine against Nasdaq OMX regarding the problematic Facebook IPO . The SEC cited “poor systems and decision making” both before and after the Facebook initial public offering. In addition to the $10 million fine, Nasdaq had already agreed to pay $62 million to the brokers who lost money because of the problems.[38]

In April 2015, Nasdaq agreed to pay $26.5 million to settle a class-action lawsuit over the Facebook IPO. The suit said Nasdaq broke the law in failing to disclose technology weaknesses in its IPO systems and failing to properly design and test them for the Facebook offering. It was the first time a court had sustained a class action suit against a stock exchange.[39]

As part of the fallout from the IPO, in January 2014, Nasdaq said it no longer wanted to run the securities information processor, or SIP, the marketwide quote service that broke down and froze thousands of its U.S. stocks on August 22, 2013. [40] However, Nasdaq later reconsidered and made a bid for the contract in 2014, becoming one of two finalists to run the SIP, the other being Tradeworx Inc.’s Thesys Technologies LLC. [41] In November 2014, Nasdaq beat out Thesys and won the right to keep running the SIP, with a mandate to create a subsidiary to manage it.[42]

ISE Purchase, Technology Enhancements and Adena Friedman as New CEO[edit]

In 2015, Nasdaq entered the growing world of blockchain technology when it demonstrated a blockchain proof-of-concept. Using Nasdaq Linq, the exchange's new blockchain technology platform, a customer successfully completed its first private market transaction using blockchain technology, making it possible for private shares to digitally represent a record of ownership.[43]

In a further move into blockchain, Nasdaq and the Nordic financial services group SEB in Sept. 2017 announced a joint project to test a “developed prototype” for a mutual fund trading platform based on blockchain technology. Mutual funds are an area in which transactions are still done manually, with paper-driven processes and orders still via fax.[44]

In 2016, Nasdaq unveiled the Nasdaq Financial Framework, which brought together all the elements of its fintech onto a single platform.

The company also introduced cloud-based services, including its IR Insight and the IR webhosting platform.[45]

In 2016, Nasdaq made one of its biggest acquisitions when it bought the International Securities Exchange from Deutsche Boerse Group for $1.1 billion, giving Nasdaq a total of six options exchanges.[46]

Adena Friedman took over as CEO from Robert Greifeld in January of 2017.

In October 2017, Nasdaq completed the purchase of eVestment, a content and analytics firm for asset managers, investment firms and asset holders.[47]

In April 2018, Nasdaq sold its public relations, webcasting and web hosting from Nasdaq's Corporate Solutions business to West Corporation for approximately $335 million. [48][49]

In July 2018, the exchange announced plans to launch a new interest rate contract, listed on its Nasdaq Futures Exchange, (NFX). The new contract called DVO1 Treasury Futures, which stands for the "dollar value of one basis point." It aims to allow for hedging against price moves in cash market Treasuries across the yield curve, from 2-year to 30-year maturities.[50][51]

Nasdaq Expands Data and Clearing[edit]

In December 2018, Nasdaq acquired Quandl, Inc., a provider of alternative and core financial data.[52]

Nasdaq acquired Cinnober Financial Technology in January 2019 for $220 million, up from its original bid of $190 million in September 2018.[53][54][55]

Along with the Cinnober acquisition Nasdaq acquired the LBMA-i, which began as a joint effort between the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) and Simplitium, a subsidiary of Cinnober. In July of 2019, Nasdaq expanded the LBMA-i service to include daily market information on platinum and palladium, joining existing daily data sets for gold and silver.[56]


Nasdaq CEO Friedman said in 2018 that she is "optimistic" about the future of cryptocurrency and blockchain/distributed ledger technology, and that it "feels like the right next step in the space of currency."[57] She also said in April 2018 that Nasdaq is open to launching a cryptocurrency exchange in the future, once the market "matures."[58][59] Then in June, Friedman said that cryptocurrencies are at "the height of hype," and that they will become a "financial element of the Internet."[60][61]

In late July, Nasdaq hosted a secret meeting in Chicago, Illinois. The meeting included representatives from traditional exchanges as well as cryptocurrency exchanges, including Gemini. The group discussed a number of issues in the current cryptocurrency trading space, including the need for adequate market surveillance, as well as the implications of future cryptocurrency market regulation.[62][63]

In late November Gabor Gurbacs, the director of digital asset strategy for investment management firm VanEck announced at Coindesk's Consensus: Invest conference that the firm had partnered with Nasdaq. According to Gurbacs, the purpose of the partnership was to "bring a regulated crypto 2.0 futures-type contract" to the cryptocurrency markets.[64] In a perhaps unrelated development, Nasdaq confirmed on December 3, 2018, that it would launch bitcoin futures in the first half of the next year.[65]

With a focus on digital transaction processing, machine learning and artificial intelligence, emerging marketplaces and data & analytics, Nasdaq Ventures is the funding arm of Nasdaq. On December 4, 2018, ErisX, a cryptocurrency futures and spot exchange, announced that Nasdaq Ventures had participated in its second, pre-revenue round of funding.[66]

In January 2019, Nasdaq and Citigroup Inc. led the series B round of investment for Symbiont. Other investors included Michael Novogratz's Galaxy Digital Holdings Ltd., as well as Raptor Group Holdings, an investment company backed by Jim Pallotta.[67]

On Tuesday, September 20, 2022, Nasdaq said it would launch a digital assets services business called "Nasdaq Digital Assets" that would begin with custody of crypto tokens for institutional investors. The company also said it was considering rolling out trading of digital assets.[68] [69]

Bitcoin and Ether Index Funds[edit]

In February 2019, Nasdaq announced that it had partnered with the New Zealand-based blockchain data and research firm Brave New Coin to create real-time indexes for bitcoin and Ether, the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum platform, on Nasdaq's Global Index Data ServiceSM (GIDS). The bitcoin index will be called the Bitcoin Liquid Index (BLX), and the Ether index will be called the Ethereum Liquid Index (ELX), according to the announcement. These indexes will offer a "real-time spot or reference rate" for the price of both digital assets compared to the U.S. dollar, "based on the most liquid ends of their markets," and will be refreshed in thirty-second intervals. Nasdaq also said these indexes will be calculated using an "independently-audited" method. [70]

In April 2019, Nasdaq announced that it was adding a cryptocurrency index for XRP, called the XRP Liquid Index (XRPLX).[71]

Company Overview[edit]

The company has four main divisions: Market Services, Corporate Services, Information Services and Market Technology.

Key People[edit]



Nasdaq operates three U.S. cash equity exchanges. There are some 3,500 companies listed on Nasdaq exchanges globally.[76] Market participants can trade non-Nasdaq listed securities on Nasdaq exchanges.

Nasdaq lists U.S. equities as well as Canadian, Nordic, and Baltic Equities, and ETPs.[77]


Nasdaq’s Global Index Family offers more than 41,000 indexes covering different asset classes that in sum represent some 98 percent of the investable global equity market. [78]

Nasdaq’s premier index is their eponymous Nasdaq 100, launched in 1985, which includes the top 100 non-financial companies listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market. The index was modified in November of 1998, in order to make the index suitable for the basis of an exchange-traded fund. This paved the way for the launch of QQQ or the NASDAQ-100 Index Tracking Stock, today known as the PowerShares QQQ.

Nasdaq’s PSX exchange was revamped in 2014 to specifically focus on exchange-traded funds, though ETFs are traded on a number of Nasdaq exchanges.

Fixed Income[edit]

In the United States, Nasdaq offers trading in U.S. Treasuries — 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 30-year — via its eSpeed trading platform.[79]

Nasdaq Nordic offers more than 1,000 different Swedish and Danish fixed income products such as Swedish government bonds and Danish mortgage bonds as well as products from Finland and Iceland.[80]

Through Nasdaq Baltic, Nasdaq offers access to Latvian and Lithuanian government bonds as well as corporate bonds. [81]

Nasdaq’s London-based interest rate platform, Nasdaq NLX, offers futures trading on German 2, 5, and 10-year government debt, as well as 3-month Euribor, 3-month sterling and long gilts.[82]

Nasdaq OMX Armenia offers some trading in corporate bonds.[83]


Nasdaq’s commodity offerings, via Nasdaq Commodities, are predominantly power-related, such as natural gas, electricity and fuel oil. The exceptions to the power-theme are shipping, seafood, and ferrous metal contracts. The energy and emission component of Nasdaq Commodities stems from the 2008 acquisition of Nord Pool ASA (which formed the basis for Nasdaq Commodities), and the metals, freight and fuel asset classes came from the 2012 acquisition of NOS Clearing ASA.[84]

NFX, launched in September 2015, is Nasdaq's U.S.-based energy derivatives market with contracts on oil, natural gas and U.S. power.


Nasdaq operates six options markets with a variety of pricing structures, offering trading in equity options, index options, options on ETFs, and foreign exchange options.

Nasdaq offers dollar settled FX options on seven currencies: the Japanese yen, Swiss franc, New Zealand dollar, Euro, Canadian dollar, British pound and Australian dollar.[85]

In Europe, Nasdaq exchanges also offer trading in fixed income options, equity options, and index options.


Nasdaq offers commodity futures through its Nasdaq Futures (NFX) platform.

Futures on equities, indexes, stocks and fixed income are available across an array of Nasdaq’s exchanges.

ESG at Nasdaq[edit]

Complete information about Nasdaq's corporate commitment to ESG can be found on its website here.

Nasdaq's suite of ESG products includes both options and futures contracts based on the OMX Stockholm 30 ESG benchmark index, which was launched in June 2018. Nasdaq launched options contracts on the OMX Stockholm 30 ESG index in November 2021. Nasdaq’s clients, including Swedbank Robur, collaborated alongside Nasdaq to develop the new product.[86]

Contract Volume[edit]

Year Total Annual Derivatives Volume Percent Change
2021 3,292,840,477 23.76%
2020 2,660,595,514 49.02%
2019 1,785,341,204 (-) 5.77%
2018 1,894,713,045 13%
2017 1,676,626,292 6.4%
2016 1,575,700,250 (-) 4.4%
2015 1,045,646,992 (- ) 8.9%
2014 1,127,130,071 (-) 1.4%
2013 1,142,955,206 2.5%
2012 1,115,529,138 (-) 13.9%
2011 1,295,641,151 17.8%
2010 1,099,437,223 34.8%
2009 815,545,867 --

Source: FIA Annual Volume Survey

Equity Volumes[edit]

Year Total Annual Equities Volume: Shares Traded Percent Change
2017 1,559,866,800
2016 1,770,724,600
2015 1,797,193,000 --

Source: World Federation of Exchanges Annual Statistics Guide


Exchange Volume Percent Change
Nasdaq ISE 402,504,406 20.1%
Nasdaq ISE Gemini 205,043,832 7.3%
Nasdaq PHLX 724,170,578 12.8%
Nasdaq Options Market 428,650,957 25.7%
Nasdaq Exchanges Nordic 87,272,887 0.9%
Nasdaq Mercury 5,982,457 4.37%
Nasdaq NFX 22,012,655 (-)55.1%
Nasdaq BX (Boston) 17,424,846 (-)27.3%
Nasdaq Commodities 1,650,427 41.5%

Source: FIA Annual Volume Survey


Nasdaq operates its own clearinghouses and provides clearing and other post-trade technology to marketplaces around the world.

Nasdaq Clearing offers clearing of the following asset classes:

  • Equity and index derivatives on the Nordic and Baltic markets
  • Fixed income derivatives on the Nordic markets
  • Commodity derivatives on Nordic power, emission rights, gas, German and Dutch power as well as physical contracts for the British electricity market and derivatives on these.
  • OTC trades done outside the regulated markets and reported to the clearinghouse for clearing.[87]

In March 2014, Nasdaq became the first market infrastructure owner to receive approval for its clearing house to operate under stricter new European regulations designed to tighten oversight of derivatives markets. The new regulations are part of a move to mandatory clearing of derivatives trades in Europe, which is set to go into effect in 2014. The approval came from the Swedish Financial Services Authority, after the European college of regulators overseeing the application gave its assent the previous week. [88]

Acquisitions and Agreements[edit]

  • NASD merged with the American Stock Exchange in November 1998, creating "The Nasdaq-Amex Market Group." The American Stock Exchange remained as an active exchange.[89]
  • Nasdaq made two failed attempts to acquire the London Stock Exchange in 2006; the last offer expired on February 10, 2007.[90]
  • NASDAQ received SEC approval to launch its new equity and index options market, the NASDAQ Options Market, on March 12, 2008.
  • On October 21, 2008, Nasdaq acquired the consulting and clearing units and international derivatives products of Nord Pool of Oslo for about 2.3 billion Norwegian kroner ($412 million). [94]
  • In 2010, Nasdaq acquired FTEN, a company that provides real-time risk management solutions.[96]
  • Also in 2010, Nasdaq acquired SMARTS Group, a market surveillance technology provider. The acquisition was part of Nasdaq's strategy to diversify its commercial technology business and enter the broker surveillance and compliance market. SMARTS became part of Nasdaq's Market Technology business.[97]
  • On February 8, 2012, Nasdaq launched a spot gold futures contract in partnership with Ikon Global Markets, a futures commission merchant registered with the CFTC.[98]
  • On March 6, 2012, Nasdaq announced NASDAQ OMX Nordic's creation of the Genium INET all-asset and cross-market technology platform, with asset classes from all eight markets in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia available.[99]
  • Nasdaq launched its interest rate derivatives platform NASDAQ OMX NLX in London on May 31, 2013. [100]
  • Trading Technologies International, Inc. (TT) connected to NASDAQ OMX NLX in December 2013, allowing Nasdaq customers to use TT's X_TRADER order software. TT connected to Nasdaq OMX eSpeed on March 4, 2014. [104] Early in December of 2013, TT launched connections to the NASDAQ OMX Nordic market and NASDAQ OMX NLX.[105]
  • In January of 2015, Nasdaq acquired Dorsey Wright, a U.S. index provider and analytics group, bringing it further into the market for indexing and exchange-traded funds.[106]
  • On June 9, 2015, Nasdaq and Trading Technologies International, Inc. (TT) announced that TT would connect the exchange's German power and Nordic benchmark power market contracts, among other European operations, through a new platform with mobile capabilities. [107]
  • The company acquired SecondMarket Solutions in November of 2015 and combined it with the NASDAQ Private Market to facilitate the exchange of shares for private companies. The expanded NASDAQ Private Market business is headquartered in San Francisco and New York and headed by Bill Siegel, CEO of SecondMarket.[108]
  • Nasdaq acquired Chi-X Canada, an ATS in Canada for the trading of Canadian-listed securities, from Chi-X Global in 2016. The deal expanded Nasdaq's North American equities trading business beyond the U.S.[109] Additionally, in 2017, Nasdaq applied to operate an exchange in Canada, potentially bringing in competition to a market dominated by the TMX Group. In the application Nasdaq said, “Nasdaq Canada will transition its market operations from those of an ATS to those of an exchange, with no substantial changes to its current trading platform or operations." [110]
  • On June 30, 2016, Nasdaq acquired the International Securities Exchange for $1.1 billion.[111][112] [113]
  • On July 25, 2017, Nasdaq announced it acquired Sybenetix for an undisclosed amount. Sybenetix uses algorithms and artificial intelligence to spot market manipulation. It was the first acquisition during Friedman's tenure as CEO.[114]
  • On September 5, 2017, Nasdaq announced it would purchase eVestment, an analytics provider, for $705 million.[115]
  • On July 12, 2018, Nasdaq announced it would provide clearing and real-time risk management technology to SIX Swiss Exchange via the Nasdaq Financial Framework. The technology supports SIX's clearing of pan-European equities and Nordic derivatives.[116]
  • On November 30, 2021, Nasdaq and Amazon Web Services (AWS) announced a multi-year partnership in which Nasdaq would migrate its North American markets to AWS in a phased approach starting with Nasdaq MRX, a U.S. options market. The partnership began in 2022, and includes opportunities to explore new ways to leverage AWS’s cloud capabilities across Nasdaq’s anti-financial crime, data and analytics, and market infrastructure software solutions, the exchange said.[117]
  • On November 7, 2022, Nasdaq completed the move of its first market, Nasdaq MRX, to the cloud as part of its partnership with AWS to migrate all of its North American markets.[118]
  • On June 12, 2023, Nasdaq announced it had agreed to acquire Adenza, a provider of software used by banks and brokerages, in a $10.5 billion cash-and-stock deal. If completed, the Adenza deal would represent the biggest acquisition in Nasdaq’s history.[119]

Office Locations[edit]


Nasdaq Corporate -- USA
One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway New York, NY 10006 USA
+1 212 401 8700

Nasdaq MarketSite
4 Times Square, 43rd & Broadway, New York, NY 10036
+1 212 401 8700

Nasdaq Canada
25 York Street, 9th Floor, Toronto, ON M5J 2V5 Canada
+1 416 941 5838

Nasdaq Canadian Equities
25 York Street, 9th Floor, Toronto, ON M5J 2V5 Canada
+1 888 310 1560

Nasdaq BX
One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway New York, NY 10006 USA
+1 212 401 8700

Nasdaq Futures, Inc.
FMC Tower, Level 8, 2929 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
+1 215 496 5000

Nasdaq PHLX
FMC Tower, Level 8, 2929 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
+1 215 496 5000

The Nasdaq Stock Market
One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway New York, NY 10006 USA
+1 212 401 8700

U.S. Regional Offices

11 Farnsworth Street, Boston, MA 02210

One North Wacker Drive, Suite 3600, Chicago, Illinois, 60606, USA
+1 312 601 2180

440 East Broadway, Suite 250, Eugene, Oregon, 97401, USA

Los Angeles
2321 Rosecrans Avenue, Suite 2200, El Segundo, California 90245, USA
+1 310 642 6930

FMC Tower, Level 8, 2929 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
+1 215 496 5000

805 King Farm Boulevard, 1st Floor, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
+1 301 978 5310

San Francisco
505 Howard Street, Suite 4200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
+1 415 243 2300

Two Union Square, 601 Union Street, Suite 4200, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
+1 206 652 3539

Washington, D.C.
1100 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 310 East Tower, Washington, DC, 20005, USA
+1 202 912 3023


Nasdaq EU Representative Office
Avenue de Cortenbergh 116 Brussels 1000, Belgium
+32 27 35 80 31

Nasdaq Commodities
P.O. Box 443, NO-0213 Oslo, Norway, Visiting address: Karenslyst Alle, 0279 Oslo Norway
+47 6752 8000

Nasdaq Copenhagen
Postbox 1040, 1007 Copenhagen K, Denmark, Visiting address: Nikolaj Plads 6
+45 33 93 33 66

Nasdaq Germany
Friedrich-Ebert-Anlage 49, 60308 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Nasdaq Helsinki
P.O. Box 361, 00131 Helsinki, Finland, Visiting Address Fabianinkatu 14
+358 9 616 671

Nasdaq Iceland
Laugavegi 182, 105 Reykjavik, Iceland
+354 525 2800

Nasdaq Italy
Corso Venezia 6, IT-20121 Milano, Italy
+39 02 76025899

Nasdaq London
Woolgate Exchange, 25 Basinghall Street London EC2V 5HA, United Kingdom
+44 20 3753 2000

Nasdaq Netherlands
Magistratenlaan2, 's-Hertogenbosch, Noord Brabant 5223, MD, Netherlands
+31 73 704 2000

Nasdaq Norway
P.O. Box 443, NO-0213 Oslo, Norway, Visiting address: Karenslyst Alle, 0279 Oslo Norway
+47 6752 8000

Nasdaq Paris
10 Blvd Haussman, 75009 Paris, France
+33 1 85 34 13 01

Nasdaq Riga & Latvian Central Depository
Valnu iela 1 Riga LV 1050, Latvia
+371 6 721 2431

Nasdaq Stockholm
105 78 Stockholm, Sweden, Visiting address: Tullvaktsvägen 15
+46 8 405 60 00

Nasdaq Tallinn & Estonian Central Depository
Tartu mnt. 2 Tallinn 10145, Estonia
+372 640 8800

Nasdaq Vilnius & Lithuanian Central Depository
Business Center: k29, Konstitucijos avenue 29, LT-08105 Vilnius, Lithuania
+370 5 2723871

Middle East

Nasdaq Dubai
Dubai World Trade Centre, Sheikh Zayed Road Dubai, United Arab Emirates
+971 4331 2245

Asia-Pacific Offices

Nasdaq Australia
Level 8, 68 Harrington Street, The Rocks, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
+61 2 8076 2600

Nasdaq China
5th Floor, South Tower, China Overseas Plaza, No. 8 Guang Hua Dong Li, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China 100020

Nasdaq in Hong Kong
Room 1204-8, 12F, Man Yee Building, 68 Des Voeux Road Central Hong Kong
+852 2167 2500

Nasdaq India
Affluence, 72/1, St. Mark's Road, Bangalore, India 560001
+91 80 4511 9000

Nasdaq Japan
10th Floor San-Ai Kayabacho Building , Nihimbashi-Kayabacho 2-13-11, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 103-0025
+81 3 6264 9240

Nasdaq Singapore
Visiting address: 20 Collyer Quay, #17-01 Singapore 049319
+65 6505 6550


  1. Nasdaq's Story. Nasdaq.
  2. Nasdaq Market Data Products. Nasdaq.
  3. Nasdaq Nordic Market. Nasdaq.
  4. Nasdaq Corporate Overview. Nasdaq.
  5. Markets. Nasdaq.
  6. 2021 Annual ETD Volume Review. Futures Industry Association.
  7. History of the American and NASDAQ Stock Exchanges. Futures
  8. History of the American and Nasdaq stock exchanges. Library of Congress.
  9. Nasdaq 2016 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  10. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report (History). Nasdaq.
  11. How Stock Markets Work. Forbes.
  12. The Nasdaq Story: Our Heritage. Nasdaq.
  13. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  14. NQLX: Single-stock futures seller quits business. The Chicago Tribune.
  15. Nasdaq to acquire Instinet for $1.88B. MarketWatch.
  16. London Stock Exchange's Tumultuous History of Bids. The Telegraph.
  17. Nasdaq fails in takeover bid for London Stock Exchange. The New York Times.
  18. NASDAQ Completes OMX Transaction to Become The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc.. Nasdaq.
  19. Nasdaq Lands OMX for $3.7 Billion; Are More Merger Deals on the Way?. The Wall Street Journal.
  20. The Nasdaq Story: History. Nasdaq.
  21. Analysts' Presentation. NYSE Euronext.
  22. Nasdaq to Buy Boston Stock Exchange for $61 Million. Bloomberg.
  23. Nasdaq 2015 10-K. Nasdaq.
  24. Our History. Nasdaq.
  25. History of the American and Nasdaq stock exchanges. Library of Congress Business Reference Services.
  26. NASDAQ OMX Rebrands Philadelphia Board of Trade to NASDAQ OMX Futures Exchange. NASDAQ OMX.
  27. Nasdaq Futures Products. Nasdaq.
  28. Nasdaq UK Derivative Market to Offer German Bund, Euribor. Bloomberg.
  29. Nasdaq to shut NLX derivatives platform. Reuters.
  30. Nasdaq OMX in $1.2bn deal to buy eSpeed. Financial Times.
  31. Nasdaq OMX Completed Acquisition of eSpeed Platform for Trading of Benchmark U.S. Treasuries. NASDAQ OMX Press Release.
  32. Nasdaq to buy eSpeed platform for $750 million. Reuters.
  33. Nasdaq accelerates diversification play with eSpeed buy. The Trade USA.
  34. NASDAQ OMX & ICE Joint Proposal for NYSE Euronext. NASDAQ OMX Group.
  35. Nasdaq Drops $11.3 Billion Bid for NYSE, Clearing Way for Deutsche Boerse. Bloomberg.
  36. The Nasdaq Story. Nasdaq.
  37. Facebook IPO: What went wrong?. CNN Money.
  38. Nasdaq Is Fined $10 Million Over Mishandled Facebook Public Offering. NY Times.
  39. Nasdaq to settle Facebook IPO lawsuit for $26.5 million. Reuters.
  40. Nasdaq Said to Plan End to Role Running Stock Price System. Bloomberg.
  41. High-Frequency Firm Said to Be Finalist to Run Nasdaq Price Feed. Bloomberg.
  42. Nasdaq Wins Committee Vote for Right to Run Stock Feed. Bloomberg.
  43. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  44. NASDAQ Collaborates In SEB's Blockchain Investment For Mutual Funds Market. Forbes.
  45. Nasdaq 2016 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  46. Nasdaq U.S. options exchanges. Nasdaq.
  47. Nasdaq Completes Acquisition of eVestment. Nasdaq.
  48. West Corporation Agrees to Acquire Nasdaq's Public Relations Solutions and Digital Media Services. Nasdaq.
  49. Nasdaq Completes Sale of its Public Relations Solutions and Digital Media Services Businesses to West Corporation. Nasdaq.
  50. Nasdaq Launches U.S. Treasury Futures Product. Nasdaq.
  51. NFX Basis Point Value Contracts; One quarter hubris, three quarters details. Nasdaq.
  52. Nasdaq Acquires Quandl to Advance the Use of Alternative Data. Nasdaq.
  53. Nasdaq to buy Cinnober in $190 million deal. Cinnober.
  54. Nasdaq Technology completes its recommended public cash offer to the shareholders and warrant holders of Cinnober. Nasdaq.
  55. Nasdaq raises bid for Swedish tech provider Cinnober to $220m. Financial News.
  56. Nasdaq and LBMA Expand Access to Precious Metals Data. Nasdaq.
  57. Why Nasdaq's CEO is bullish on cryptocurrencies. CNN Money.
  58. Nasdaq is open to becoming cryptocurrency exchange, CEO says. CNBC.
  59. Nasdaq open to cryptocurrency exchange in future, says CEO. Reuters.
  60. Nasdaq CEO: Cryptocurrencies Are at ‘Height of Hype’. Cointelegraph.
  61. Cryptocurrencies at 'Height of Hype Cycle,' Nasdaq CEO Says. Bloomberg.
  62. Nasdaq Holds Closed Door Event to Discuss Policing Crypto. Bloomberg.
  63. Nasdaq Held a Closed-Door Meeting to Discuss Legitimizing Cryptocurrencies. Fortune.
  64. Nasdaq, VanEck Partner to Launch ‘Crypto 2.0’ Futures Contracts. Coindesk.
  65. Confirmed: Nasdaq’s Bitcoin Futures Will Launch in 'First Half' of 2019. Cointelegraph.
  66. Fidelity, Bitmain and More Invest $27 Million in Crypto Trading Platform ErisX. Coindesk.
  67. Nasdaq, Citi Join Novogratz in Funding Blockchain Firm Symbiont. Bloomberg.
  68. Nasdaq considers crypto trading as it pushes into digital assets. The Financial Times.
  69. Nasdaq launches new digital assets business. The Trade News.
  70. Nasdaq to Add Bitcoin and Ethereum Indices to Global Data Service. Coindesk.
  71. Nasdaq to Add Bitcoin and Ethereum Indices to Global Data Service. Coindesk.
  72. Nasdaq's Story Trade. Nasdaq.
  73. OCC Monthly Volume Report. OCC.
  74. Deutsche Borse Completes Sale of ISE to Nasdaq. Finance Magnates.
  75. Nasdaq Form 10-K. Nasdaq.
  76. Nasdaq. Nasdaq Corporate Factsheet 2015.
  77. Nasdaq. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report.
  78. Nasdaq. Nasdaq Annual Report 2015.
  79. NASDAQ OMX eSpeed Overview. Nasdaq.
  80. Nordic Fixed Income Analytics. Nasdaq.
  81. Baltic Bond List. Nasdaq.
  82. Nasdaq NLX Products List. Nasdaq.
  83. Nasdaq OMX Armenia. Nasdaq.
  84. Nasdaq, Inc. 2015 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  85. Nasdaq FX Options. Nasdaq.
  86. Nasdaq launches options on the OMX Stockholm 30 ESG Index. The Trade News.
  87. Clearinghouses and CSDs. Nasdaq OMX.
  88. Nasdaq OMX gets go ahead for clearing house under new rules. The Financial Times.
  89. History of the Nasdaq. US Library of Congress Business Reference Services.
  90. Nasdaq fails in takeover bid for London Stock Exchange. The New York Times.
  91. Nasdaq to Buy Boston Stock Exchange for $61 Million. Bloomberg.
  92. Nasdaq OMX Buys Stake in Fortis EMCF. Finextra.
  93. EuroCCP consolidation is complete. EuroCCP.
  94. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  95. NASDAQ OMX Rebrands Philadelphia Board of Trade to NASDAQ OMX Futures Exchange. NASDAQ OMX.
  96. NASDAQ OMX to Acquire FTEN. NASDAQ website.
  98. NASDAQ OMX and IKON GLOBAL MARKETS Launch Spot Gold Futures. FinazNachrichten.
  99. NASDAQ OMX Nordic Creates All-Asset and Cross-Market Technology Platform. NASDAQ OMX.
  100. Nasdaq UK Derivative Market to Offer German Bund, Euribor. Bloomberg.
  101. Nasdaq OMX in $1.2bn deal to buy eSpeed. Financial Times.
  102. Nasdaq OMX Completed Acquisition of eSpeed Platform for Trading of Benchmark U.S. Treasuries. NASDAQ OMX Press Release.
  103. Nasdaq to buy eSpeed platform for $750 million. Reuters.
  104. NASDAQ OMX eSpeed Goes Live on Trading Technologies. The Wall Street Journal.
  105. TT Goes Live on NLX and Nasdaq OMX Nordic. Waters Technology.
  106. Nasdaq buys US index provider for $225m. The Financial Times.
  107. Trading Technologies Will Connect to Nasdaq's European Commodities Market. Trading Technologies.
  108. NASDAQ Acquires SecondMarket To Help Startups Sell Shares. TechCrunch.
  109. Nasdaq 2015 Annual Report. Nasdaq.
  110. Nasdaq Eyes Canada for New Exchange. Traders Magazine.
  111. Nasdaq to Buy Options Exchange Operator ISE for $1.1 Billion. Dow Jones Newswire.
  112. “Cannot be done”: ISE’s Gary Katz Tells The Inside Story Of The Biggest Disruptor To The Options Industry. John Lothian News.
  113. Nasdaq Completes Acquisition of International Securities Exchange. Nasdaq.
  114. Nasdaq acquires Sybenetix, a software firm that uses A.I. to sniff out rogue traders. CNBC.
  115. Nasdaq to buy analytics firm eVestment for $705 million. Reuters.
  116. Nasdaq to Provide Clearing Technology to SIX for Clearing Services. Nasdaq.
  117. {{cite web}url= and AWS Partner to Transform Capital Markets|org=Nasdaq|date=December 1, 2021}}
  118. Nasdaq Moves First Market to Cloud. Markets Media.
  119. Nasdaq Accelerates Its Transformation as a Leading Technology Provider to the Global Financial System with the Acquisition of Adenza from Thoma Bravo. Nasdaq.